2、《钢铁是怎样炼成的》是一个英雄战士谱写的一曲 英雄主义 的赞歌。
14长篇小说《钢铁是怎样炼成的》是 苏联 作家奥斯特罗夫斯基的代表作。
15、《钢铁是怎样炼成的》是一部描写苏联 十月革命 后第一代苏维埃青年，在 布尔什
16、修筑 波耶卡 窄轨铁路，使保尔经受了一场严寒、饥饿和艰苦劳动的考验。
1 在下列选择中选出与原文不符的一项（ D ）
The modern British Empire first took shape in the early 17th century，with the British settlement of the eastern colonies of North America，which would later become the original United States，as well as Canada"s Maritime provinces，and the colonizations of the smaller islands of the Caribbean such as Trinidad and Tobago，the Bahamas，Barbados，and Jamaica.
These sugar plantation islands，where slavery became the basis of the economy，were at first Britain"s most important and successful colonies.The American colonies providing tobacco，cotton，and rice in the south and naval material and furs in the north were less financially successful，but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of British immigrants.
Britain"s American empire was slowly expanded by war and colonization.The ever growing American colonies pressed westward in search of new agricultural lands.Conflict arose with the Dutch over trade and empire; First Anglo?Dutch War (1652～1654); Second Anglo?Dutch War (1665～1667); Third Anglo?Dutch War (1672～1674); Britain gained control of New Amsterdam，which was renamed New York，but ceded Suriname.They defeated the French，first expanding their hold over the maritime provinces.Then during the Seven Years War the British defeated the French at the Plains of Abraham and captured all of New France in 1760.This gave Britain control over almost all of North America.Fourth Anglo?Dutch War (1780～1784); Anglo?Dutch Treaty of 1814;Anglo?Dutch Treaty of 1824.
In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century a series of technological advances led to the Industrial Revolution.Britain"s position as the world"s pre?eminent trader helped fund research and experimentation.The nation was also gifted by some of the world"s greatest reserves of coal，the main fuel of the new revolution.
①naval adj.海的 ②cede vt.放弃 ③treaty n.条约
长短句分析：The American colonies providing tobacco，cotton，and rice in the south and naval material and furs in the north were less financially successful，but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of British immigrants.
句法点睛：本句中，“providing tobacco，cotton，and rice in the south and naval material and furs in the north”为定语，修饰colonies;but连接两个谓语。
1.Where did the British first settle when they first came to America in the 17th century?
A.Only the United States.
B.Not only the United States but also parts of other countries.
C.The whole of Canada.
答案 B [细节理解题。由“the original United States，as well as Canada"s Maritime provinces，and the colonizations of the smaller islands of the Caribbean such as Trinidad and Tobago，the Bahamas，Barbados，and Jamaica”可知，当时英国占领的不仅仅是美国，还占领了加拿大的临海省份，以及一些岛屿国家。]
2.According to the passage what in America made the British interested most?
B.Naval material and furs.
C.A great deal of good farmland.
答案 C [联系第二段中的“naval material and furs in the north were less financially successful，but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of British immigrants”可知，英国移民看上的不是海产品和皮毛，而是大量的肥沃土地。]
3.What does the underlined word “pressed” mean in the third paragraph?
A.Touched. B.Pushed. C.Published. D.Extended.
答案 D [词义猜测题。联系“westward in search of new agricultural lands”可知，这些殖民者向西扩张以寻求更多的土地，因此D项最合适。]
4.How many years was it from the first war with Anglo to the end of the last war in history?
A.132 years. B.162 years.C.172 years. D.108 years.
答案 A [推理判断题。第一次战争开始于1652年，而最后一次战争结束于1784年，因此得出答案A。]
Culture helps human societies survive in changing natural environments.For example，the end of the last Ice Age，beginning about 15,000 years ago，brought an enormous challenge to which humans had to adapt.Before this time，large parts of the northern hemisphere were covered in great sheets of ice that contained much of the earth"s water.In North America，large animals that roamed the vast tundra provided people with food and materials for clothing and simple shelters.When the earth became warm，large Ice Age animals disappeared，and many land areas were submerged by rising sea levels from melting ice.But people survived.They developed new technologies and learned how to survive on new plant and animal species.Finally some people settled into permanent villages，durable houses and farms.
Cultural adaptation has made humans one of the most successful species on the planet.Through history，major developments in technology，medicine，and nutrition have allowed people to reproduce and survive in ever?increasing numbers.The global population has risen from 8 million during the Ice Age to about 6 billion today.
However，the successes of culture can also create problems in the long run.Over the last 200 years，people have begun to use large quantities of natural resources and energy and to produce a great amount of material and chemical wastes.The global population now consumes some crucial natural resources—such as petroleum，wood，and mineral ores—faster than nature can produce them.Many scientists believe that in the process of burning fuels and producing wastes，people may be changing the global climate in unpredictable and possibly harmful ways.Thus，the adaptive success of the present?day global culture of production and commerce may be temporary.
tundra n.冰原;苔原 ②submerge vt.淹没
③crucial adj.关键的 ④ore n.矿
长短句分析：Many scientists believe that in the process of burning fuels and producing wastes，people may be changing the global climate in unpredictable and possibly harmful ways.
句法点睛：这是个主从复合句。Many scientists believe为主句部分，in the process of burning fuels and producing wastes为宾语从句的时间状语，people may be changing the global climate in unpredictable and possibly harmful ways为宾语从句的主干部分。
1.What does the first paragraph mainly talk about?
A.How the human being survived in the Ice Age.
B.What the situation was during the Ice Age.
C.What caused the Ice Age to come to an end.
D.Why the Ice Age was very important.
答案 A [主旨大意题。虽然冰川融化，人类食物链遭到破坏，但由于人类具有认识和使用新技术的能力而得以存活，并发展状大。]
2.The passage doesn"t tell the readers ________.
A.what caused the earth to become warm
B.when the ending of the Ice Age began
C.the population of the Ice Age
D.the problem of cultural adaptation
答案 A [细节理解题。短文没有论及地球变暖的原因。]
3.Which is the problem of cultural adaption?
A.A very developed culture came into being.
B.Too much species have been endangered.
C.The world has become too crowded.
D.Human activities have made damage to the balance of nature.
答案 D [细节理解题。人类过量使用自然资源而破坏了生态平衡。]
4.In face of the greater challenge，human beings should ________.
A.stop developing any longer
B.reduce using too much natural resources
C.find a way out to stop the warming up of the globe
D.save more animals in case they all die out
答案 B [细节理解题。人类过量使用自然资源已经导致了环境的恶化，理智的办法就是减少使用自然资源。]
Angela works at a university as adviser.Students can come and ask her for many problems if they need help or advices.Most of them are worried about their studies and exams.Some of them have problems connect with renting flats，though the biggest problem was loneliness.Universities are excited places but some students find difficult to make friends.They miss their families but feel lost in the new environment.They"re upset.Angela"s job is to listen to and try to understand whether they are thinking about.And of course she also gives practical advice when she is needed.
Angela works at a university as adviser.Students can come and ask her for many problems if they need help or .Most of them are worried about their studies and exams.Some of them have problems with renting flats，though the biggest problem loneliness.Universities are places but some students find difficult to make friends.They miss their families feel lost in the new environment.They"re upset.Angela"s job is to listen to\\/ and try to understand they are thinking about.And of course she also gives practical advice when is needed.
hello, my name is yang jun. look, this is my school. there are many flowers and trees in it. i like my school. i’m in class two, grade five. there are forty-one students in my class. look at my classroom. tt’s big and bright. you can see a computer on the teacher’s desk. and there’s a tv near the blackboard. on the wall, there are some nice pictures. i like them very much.welcome to my school.
( ) 1. there are lots of trees and flowers in the park.
( ) 2. yang jun ji in class five grade two.
( ) 3. his class is big and bright.
( ) 4. there’s a book on the tercher’s desk.
( ) 5. there are some pictures in the classroom.
my name is sheila. i’m from london. i live in wuxi with my parents now. my bedroom is small but clean. in my bedroom, there is a bed, a desk, a chair, a computer and a bookcase. on the wall, there is a photo and a guitar. i can play the guitar. the photo is nice. the girl in the photo is me. there are lots of storybook and picture books in the bookcase. my bedroom is nice. ilike it very much.
( ) 6. shelia is an english girl.
( ) 7. shelia is in wuxi. her parents are in london now.
( ) 8. there is a photo of her family on the wall.
( ) 9. shelia can play the guitar.
( ) 10. there is a computer in the bookcse.
it’s new year’s day. it’s half past seven in the evening. look! my family are getting together in our sitting-room. we are sitting aroung the table. on the table. there is a lot of food, like meat, fish, eggs, soup and vegetables(蔬菜). we are having a big dinner(晚餐). but my brother, zhang peng isn’t here. where is he? what is he doing? he is staying in his study. why? because he wants to finish his science (科学)report (报告). he is writing his report.
( ) 11. zhang peng is sitting together with his family now.
( ) 12. there is a lot of food on the table.
( ) 13. today is the first day of january.
( ) 14. i have a sister.
( ) 15. zhang peng is very busy.
it’s a sunny day. the sun is smiling. the bird and butterflies are dancing now. my grandma has a book under her arm. she is wearing glasses today. her shoes are under the bed. there is a photo over her bed. there are t-shirt on her bed, too. the clock is new. but the vase is old. my cat is sleeping now. the telephone is ringing. oh, look at, my bag and ruler are on the floor!
( ) 16. today is sunday.
( ) 17. my grandma is dancing now.
( ) 18. the shirts are on her bed.
( ) 19. the clock is new and the vase is old.
( ) 20. my ruler is on the floor.
The Great Barn Adventure
One morning when I was 11, I explored the town’s abandoned round grain barn(谷仓). I found a chained sliding door that was wide enough for me to pass through.
Inside, there was a heavy smell of dead mice in the dark. After my eyes adjusted, I noticed a shaft (升降机井) that rose all the way to the top of the barn. On one side was a one-man elevator with a long rope and roller.
I stepped onto the platform and gave the rope a drag and the elevator began sliding up the shaft, but stopped halfway. After a brief panic attack, I noticed holes in the wall at regular intervals, forming a ladder. For reasons known only to an 11-year-old, I decided it would be better to go up than down. So, with shaking hands, I began climbing the wall.
After what seemed like forever, I reached the top of the shaft. I stood up, dusted myself off and found…absolutely nothing of interest. It was just an empty room with a ladder leading up to the roof. I climbed all the way up here for this? Then I noticed a fire extinguisher(灭火器),which I’d always wanted to shoot off. So this was the chance of a lifetime. I tried it, and, much to my surprise, the thing worked! It shot out a thick cloud of powder that instantly filled the room. I couldn’t breathe. I was going to choke to death, and they’d probably never even find my body.
Luckily, I remembered the ladder to the roof. I climbed up, popped the straw roof and saw a bright blue sky.
I suddenly realized the dust and powder pouring out of the top could draw attention. So when the dust had settled, I climbed down and slipped out of the chained door. I’m not sure if I was more excited about being alive or about not being caught, but I ran all the way back home.
56. When the author got inside the barn, he _______.
A. noticed a man on the elevator
B. opened the chained sliding door
C. saw many dead mice in the dark
D. found a shaft leading to the top
57. Which of the following is the right order of the author’s adventure?
a. The elevator stopped halfway.
b. He entered the round grain barn.
c. He climbed to the top of the shaft.
d. He found a fire extinguisher and shot it off.
A. b-a-c-d B. a-c-b-d C. c-a-d-b D. b-c-a-d
58. After getting out of the chained door, the author might feel _______.
A. inspired B. relieved C. surprised D. disappointed
59. From the passage, we can learn that the author was probably a boy full of _______.
A. passions B. dreams C. curiosity D. imagination
Wikipedia: The Online Know-It-All
If you want to find out a piece of information about anything, the best place to search for it is Wikipedia. The name “Wikipedia” is from the Hawaiian word wiki, meaning “quick”. This online encyclopedia (百科全书) is written by thousands of people around the world. Anyone with Internet access can write, add or make changes to Wikipedia articles if he or she finds it incorrect or not well written. In this way, people who know a lot about a certain subject can write about it even if they are not university professors. But contributions cannot damage Wikipedia because many experienced editors are watching pages and techies (技术专家) can write editing programs to keep track of or correct bad edits. Where there are disagreements on how to present facts, editors work together to arrive at an article that fairly represents current expert opinion on the subject.
Wikipedia is quite different from paper-based reference sources in important ways. Unlike printed encyclopedias, it is continually created and updated, with articles on historic events appearing within minutes, rather than months or years.
What’s more, Wikipedia includes articles written in about 285 languages. This fact makes it one of the few websites on the Internet that are truly international. It was started in by Larry Sanger and Jimmy Wales, as a free online English-language encyclopedia project. Since its creation, it has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference websites, attracting nearly 500 million unique visitors monthly. There are more than 77,000 active contributors working on more than 22,000,000 articles in different languages. As of today, there are 4,396,866 articles in English.
So, if you are looking for some information, why not try Wikipedia? It’s free, multilingual，and informative.
56. According to the passage, what is Wikipedia?
A. A free website encyclopedia.B. A computer game.
C. A free encyclopedia in book form.D. An online university.
57. From the passage we know that ______.
A. Wikipedia catches a wide audience
B. Wikipedia only charges users a small fee
C. incorrect editions might do great harm to Wikipedia
D. it will take long to update the information on Wikipedia
58. Where can we probably read the passage?
A. In a story book.B. In a research report.
C. In a science magazine.D. In a travel brochure.
“Thanks for coming,” Everett said, shaking hands with Mr. Hanson, the town councillor(议员).
“I’m curious about the ideas in your letter.” Mr. Hanson nodded toward the parking lot near where they stood. “Please tell me more.”
Everett took a deep breath. “Ever since the school closed two years ago, this area has become worse. But if we clean up the litter and repair the fence, it will be a great place for a skateboard park.” Mr. Hanson scanned the broken concrete, nodding. “The old school is being adapted to a community arts centre. This area could become a vital part of the neighbourhood again.”
“Here’s a picture of a skateboard park in another town. Look how busy it is.” Everett was relieved that the community representative seemed receptive to the idea. Mr. Hanson studied the photograph, and then asked, “If town council provides the money, how will you and your friends contribute?” Everett felt optimistic now. “We’ll help design and build the ramps(坡道). More experienced boarders could give lessons to raise money!” Everett’s voice was enthusiastic.
However, Mr. Hanson said, “We’ll still need parking spaces, and the neighbours will not like late-night noise. They might worry about the crime of deliberately damaging public property and….”
“The skateboard park would use only the back corner, which isn’t near any houses. Since young people already hang out here, why not give them something fun and physically active to do in their free time?” The lines over Mr. Hanson’s forehead unwrinkled(舒展), and Everett’s hopes rose again. “If everyone works together,” Everett thought, “maybe this idea will become reality.”
56. Where were Everett and Mr. Hanson talking?
A. In the city hall.B. Outside a park.
C. Near the parking lot. D. In the art centre.
57. Everett was trying to persuade Mr. Hanson to _____.
A. beautify the neighbourhood
B. cut the area of the parking lot
C. build an art centre for children
D. provide money for a skateboard park
58. How did Mr. Hanson finally feel about Everett’s suggestion?
A. Curious. B. Hopeful.C. Enthusiastic.D. Receptive.
停了一会儿，妈妈又望着我（ ）地说：“这是没有人喝彩的工作，但却是重要的，而且是不能够没有的工作。”听了妈妈的话，我（ ）。
有一回，放学的路上，我又淋了雨。回到家就病倒了，通身烧得滚烫滚烫的。娘摸着我的头，眼圈儿便红了，那时候我小，不懂事，竟不能体谅娘的难处，却说：“要有把伞就好了，咱买一把吧！”娘沉思良久最后一字一句地说 买 咱买一把 听了娘的话，我半信半疑。那年月家里的生活十分jian nan，她哪能有钱给我买伞呢？可是，我知道娘的脾气，对孩子，她从来都是说一句是一句的。
这天晚上，她早早地上了织布机，脚一蹬，手一搬，“哐里哐当”，满屋里便都是机声了。这一夜，我枕着机声入梦。一早醒来，机声还在响。啊，娘织了一夜布。我悄悄地走到娘跟前，chan dou地喊了一声：“娘！”娘用熬红的眼睛看着我， 不自然地笑了笑。我的泪水夺眶而出，说：“娘，你别再熬夜了，我不要伞了！”
1、文中的拼音处是什么词语，仔细拼拼加上声调，并把这些词写在后面括号里。( ) （ ）（ ）
5、“我偶一抬头，望见了娘那带笑的黄油布似的脸，心里一酸，眼里涌出了泪水……这句话中”黄油布似的脸”说明( ) 这句话表达了“我（ ）
Until the 1980s, the American homeless population comprised mainly older males. Today, homelessness strikes much younger part of society. In fact, a 25-city survey by the U. S. Conference of Mayors in 1987 found that families with children make up the fastest growing part of the homeless population. Many homeless children gather in inner cities; this transient(变化无常的) and frequently frightened student population creates additional problems ― both legal and educational ― for already overburdened urban school administrators and teachers.
Estimates of the number of homeless Americans range from 350,000 to three million. Likewise, estimates of the number of homeless school children vary radically. A U.S. Department of Education report, based on state estimates, states that there are 220,000 homeless school-age children, about a third of whom do not attend school on a regular basis, But the National Coalition for the Homeless estimates that there are at least two times as many homeless children, and that less than half of them attend school regularly.
One part of the homeless population that is particularly difficult to count consists of the “throwaway” youths who have been cast of their homes. The Elementary School Center in New York City estimates that there are 1.5 million of them, many of whom are not counted as children because they do not stay in family shelters and tend to live by themselves on the streets.
Federal law, the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987, includes a section that addresses the educational needs of homeless children. The educational provisions of the McKinney Act are based on the belief that all homeless children have the right to a free, appropriate education.
1. It is implied in the first paragraph that ____.
A) the writer himself is homeless, even in his eighties
B) many older homeless residents are going on strike in 25 cities
C) there is a serious shortage of academic facilities
D) homeless children are denied the opportunity of receiving free education
2. The National Coalition for the homeless believes that the number of homeless children is _____.
3. One part of the homeless population is difficult to estimate. The reason might well be ____.
A) the homeless children are too young to be counted as children
B) the homeless population is growing rapidly
C) the homeless children usually stay outside school
D) some homeless children are deserted by their families
4. The McKinney Act is mentioned in this passage in order to show that ___.
A) the educational problems of homeless children are being recognized
B) the estimates on homeless children are hard to determine
C) the address of grade-school children should be located
D) all homeless people are entitled to free education
5. The passage mainly deals with ____.
A) the legal problems of the homeless children
B) the educational problems of homeless children
C) the social status of older males
D) estimates on the homeless population
答案：C C D A B