|英文简历   |



WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616), English poet, player and playwright, was baptized in the parish church of Stratford upon-Avon in Warwickshire on the 26th of April 1564. The exact date of his birth is not known. Two. 18th-century antiquaries, William Oldys and Joseph Greene, gave it as April 23, but without quoting authority for their statements, and the fact that April 23 was the day of Shakespeare's death in 1616 suggests a possible source of error. In any case his birthday cannot have been later than April 23, since the inscription upon his monument is evidence that on April 23, 1616, he had already begun his fifty-third year. His father, John Shakespeare, was a burgess of the recently constituted corporation of Stratford, and had already filled certain minor municipal offices. From 1561 to 1563 he had been one of the two chamberlains to whom the finance of the town was entrusted. By occupation he was a glover, but he also appears to have dealt from time to time in various kinds of agricultural produce, such as barley, timber and wool. Aubrey (Lives, 1680) spoke of him as a butcher, and it is quite possible that he bred and even killed the calves whose skins he manipulated. He is sometimes described in formal documents as a yeoman, and it is highly probable that he combined a certain amount of farming with the practice of his trade. He was living in Stratford as early as 1552, in which year he was fined for having a dunghill in Henley Street, but he does not appear to have been a native of the town, in whose records the name is not found before his time; and he may reasonably be identified with the John Shakespeare of Snitterfield, who administered the goods of his father, Richard Shakespeare, in 1561. Snitterfield is a village in the immediate neighbourhood of Stratford, and here Richard Shakespeare had been settled as a farmer since 1529. It is possible that John Shakespeare carried on the farm for some time after his father's death, and that by 1570 he had also acquired a small holding called Ingon in Hampton Lucy, the next village to Snitterfield. But both of these seem to have passed subsequently to his brother Henry, who was buried at Snitterfield in 1596. There was also at Snitterfield a Thomas Shakespeare and an Anthony Shakespeare, who afterwards moved to Hampton Corley; and these may have been of the same family. A John Shakespeare, who dwelt at Clifford Chambers, another village close to Stratford, is clearly distinct. Strenuous efforts have been made to trace Shakespeare's genealogy beyond Richard of Snitterfield, but so far without success. Certain drafts of heraldic exemplifications of the Shakespeare arms speak, in one case of John Shakespeare's

grandfather, in another of his great-grandfather, as having been rewarded with lands and tenements in Warwickshire for service to Henry VII. No such grants, however, have been traced, and even in the 16th-century statements as to " antiquity and service " in heraldic preambles were looked upon with suspicion.

威廉·莎士比亚(1564 - 1616),英国诗人,队员和剧作家在教区的教堂受洗的upon-Avon在斯特拉特福德瓦立克夏郡队在1564年4月的26th。他出生的确切日期还不为人所知。两个。18th



The name Shakespeare is extremely widespread, and is spelt in an astonishing variety of ways. That of John Shakespeare occurs 166 times in the Council Book of the Stratford corporation, and appears to take 16 different forms. The verdict, not altogether unanimous, of competent palaeographers is to the effect that Shakespeare himself, in the extant examples of his signature, always wrote " Shakspere." In the printed signatures to the dedications of his poems, on the title-pages of nearly all the contemporary editions of his plays that bear his name, and in many formal documents it appears as Shakespeare.



This may be in part due to the martial derivation which the poet's literary contemporaries were fond of assigning to his name, and which is acknowledged in the arms that he bore. The forms in use at Stratford, however, such as Shaxpeare, by far the commonest, suggest a short pronunciation of the first syllable, and thus tend to support Dr Henry Bradley's derivation from the Anglo-Saxon personal name, Seaxberht. It is interesting, and even amusing, to record that in 1487 Hugh Shakspere of Merton College, Oxford, changed his name to Sawndare, because his former name vile reputatum est. The earliest record of a Shakespeare that has yet been traced is in 12 4 8 at Clapton in Gloucestershire, about seven miles from Stratford. The name also occurs during the 13th century in Kent, Essex and Surrey, and during the 14th in Cumberland, Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, Essex, Warwickshire and as far away as Youghal in Ireland. Thereafter it is found in London and most of the English counties, particularly those of the midlands; and nowhere more freely than in Warwickshire. There were Shakespeares in Warwick and in Coventry, as well as around Stratford; and the clan appears to have been very numerous in a group of villages about twelve miles north of Stratford, which includes Baddesley Clinton, Wroxall, Rowington, Haseley, Hatton, Lapworth, Packwood, Balsall and Knowle. William was in common use as a personal name, and Williams from more than one other family have from time to time been confounded with the dramatist. Many Shakespeares are upon the register of the gild of St Anne at Knowle from about 1457 to about 1526. Amongst these were Isabella Shakespeare, prioress of the Benedictine convent of Wroxall, and Jane Shakespeare, a nun of the same convent. Shakespeares are also found as tenants on the manors belonging to the convent, and at the time of the Dissolution in 1534 one Richard Shakespeare was its bailiff and collector of rents. Conjectural attempts have been made on the one hand to connect the

ancestors of this Richard Shakespeare with a family of the same name who held land by military tenure at Baddesley Clinton in the 14th and 15th centuries, and on the other to identify him with the poet's

grandfather, Richard Shakespeare of Snitterfield. But Shakespeares are to be traced at Wroxall nearly as far back as at Baddesley Clinton, and there is no reason to suppose that Richard the bailiff, who was certainly still a tenant of Wroxall in 1556, had also since 1529 been farming land ten miles off at Snitterfield.



顿,Lapworth,Packwood,Balsall和Knowle。威廉被常用作为一个个人的名字,和威廉姆斯来自一个以上的其他家庭从一次又一次的被蒙羞的剧作家。许多莎士比亚在登记的圣安妮得到在Knowle从大约1457到1526。在这些被伊莎贝拉莎士比亚、prioress Wroxall班尼克的修道院,简莎士比亚,修女相同的修道院里去。莎士比亚作为房客也发现了在庄园属于修道院,在当时的溶解在1534年理查德莎士比亚是其围攻和收藏家的租金。推测一直尝试在一个

With the breaking of this link, the hope of giving Shakespeare anything more than a grandfather on the father's side must be laid aside for the present. On the mother's side he was connected with a family of some distinction. Part at least of Richard Shakespeare's land at Snitterfield was held from Robert Arden of Wilmcote in the adjoining parish of Aston Cantlow, a cadet of the Ardens of Parkhall, who counted amongst the leading gentry of Warwickshire. Robert Arden married his second wife, Agnes Hill, formerly Webbe, in 1548, and had then no less than eight daughters by his first wife. To the youngest of these, Mary Arden, he left in 1556 a freehold in Aston Cantlow consisting of a farm of about fifty or sixty acres in extent, known as Asbies. At some date later than November 1556, and probably before the end of 1557, Mary Arden became the wife of John Shakespeare. In October 1556 John Shakespeare had bought two freehold houses, one in Greenhill Street, the other in Henley Street. The latter, known as the wool shop, was the easternmost of the two tenements now combined in the so-called Shakespeare's birthplace. The western tenement, the birthplace proper, was probably already in John Shakespeare's hands, as he seems to have been living in Henley Street in 1552. It has sometimes been thought to have been one of two houses which formed a later purchase in 1575, but there is no evidence that these were in Henley Street at all.

以打破这一环节,希望给予的任何比一个祖父莎士比亚的父亲一方必须搁置的礼物。在母亲的旁边,他与一个家庭的一些区别。至少部分理查德莎士比亚的土地举行Snitterfield罗伯特·阿迪的教区的Wilmcote邻近的阿斯顿Cantlow,下等人的Ardens Parkhall的,在主要的计算劣绅瓦立克夏郡队。罗伯特·阿迪娶了他的第二任妻子,艾格尼丝希尔,以前Webbe,在1548年,当时不少于八女儿被他的第一个妻子。这些长幼,玛丽·阿迪,他1556年离开阿斯顿Cantlow在一个不动产组成的一个农场的50或60英亩在程度上,被称为Asbies。在某个日期迟于1556年11月,并且很有可能在1557年年底之前,玛丽·阿迪成为约翰莎士比亚的妻子。1556年10月约翰莎士比亚已经买了两个不动产的房屋,一个在Greenhill街道,另一个在亨利街。后者,称为羊毛店,位于两个住宅单位现在的组合在所谓的“莎士比亚的出生地。西方租户、适当的发祥地,很可能已经在约翰莎士比亚的手,因为他似乎一直都生活在亨利街在1552年。它有时被认为有两种房子,后来在1575年形成的


William Shakespeare was not the first child. A Joan was baptized in 1558 and a Margaret in 1562. The latter was buried in 1563 and the former must also have died young, although her burial is not recorded, as a second Joan was baptized in 1569. A Gilbert was baptized in 1566, an Anne in 1571, a Richard in 1 574 and an Edmund in 1580. Anne died in 1579; Edmund, who like his brother became an actor, in 2607; Richard in 1613. Tradition has it that one of Shakespeare's brothers used to visit London in the 17th century as quite an old man. If so, this can only have been Gilbert.

威廉·莎士比亚是不是第一个孩子。在1558年一个琼受洗和玛格丽特在1562年。后者葬在1563年和这位前还必须有英年早逝,虽然她没有记录的曲风,作为第二琼受洗于1569年。洗一个吉尔伯特在1566年,一个安在1571年,一个在1 574)与理查德·埃德蒙在1580年。安妮于1579年去世,爱德蒙,谁像他哥哥成了一个演员,在2607年,理查德在1613年。传统观点认为,莎士比亚的一首弟兄们常去17th世纪伦敦作为相当一个老男人。如果是这样的话,这只会被吉尔伯特先生。”

During the years that followed his marriage, John Shakespeare became prominent in Stratford life. In 1565 he was chosen as an alderman, and in 1568 he held the chief municipal office, that of high bailiff. This carried with it the dignity of justice of the peace. John Shakespeare seems to have assumed arms, and thenceforward was always entered in corporation documents as " Mr " Shakespeare, whereby he may be distinguished from another John Shakespeare, a " corviser " or shoemaker, who dwelt in

Stratford about 1584-1592. In 1571 as an ex-bailiff he began another year of office as chief alderman. 在随后的几年里他的婚姻,约翰莎士比亚在斯特拉特福德成了著名的生活。1565年,他被选为议员,并在1568年举办了首席市政办公无耻的围攻。这种携带有正义的尊严的和平。约翰莎士比亚似乎假设了手臂,thenceforward总是进入公司文件”,“莎士比亚初出茅庐的他的攻击,让另一个约翰莎士比亚,“corviser”或鞋匠,谁住在斯特拉特福德约1584 - 1592。在1571年能够顶住事业初期的首席议员的办公室。

One may think, therefore, of Shakespeare in his boyhood as the son of one of the leading citizens of a not unimportant. provincial market-town, with a vigorous life of its own, which in spite of the dunghills was probably not much unlike the life of a similar town to-day, and with constant reminders of its past in the shape of the stately buildings formerly belonging to its college and its gild, both of which had been suppressed at the Reformation. Stratford stands on the Avon, in the midst of an agricultural country, throughout which in those days enclosed orchards and meadows alternated with open fields for tillage, and not far from the wilder and wooded district known as the Forest of Arden. The middle ages had left it an heritage in the shape of a free grammar-school, and here it is natural to suppose that William

Shakespeare obtained a sound enough education,' with a working knowledge of " Mantuan "2 and Ovid in the original, even though to such a thorough scholar as Ben Jonson it might seem no more than " small Latin and less Greek." In 1577, when Shakespeare was about thirteen, his father's fortunes began to take a turn for the worse. He became irregular in his contributions to town levies, and had to give a mortgage on his wife's property of Asbies as security for a loan from her brother-in-law, Edmund Lambert. Money

was raised to pay this off, partly by the sale of a small interest in land at Snitterfield which had come to Mary Shakespeare from her sisters, partly perhaps by that of the Greenhill Street house and other property in Stratford outside Henley Street, none of which seems to have ever come into William

Shakespeare's hands. Lambert, however, refused to surrender the mortgage on the plea of older debts, and an attempt to recover Asbies by litigation proved ineffectual. John Shakespeare's difficulties

increased. An action for debt was sustained against him in the local court, but no personal property could be found on which to distrain. He had long ceased to attend the meetings of the corporation, and as a consequence he was removed in 1586 from the list of aldermen. In this state of domestic affairs it is not likely that Shakespeare's school life was unduly prolonged. The chances are that he was apprenticed to some local trade. Aubrey says that he killed calves for his father, and " would do it in a high style, and make a speech." Whatever his circumstances, they did not deter him at the early age of eighteen from the adventure of marriage. Rowe. recorded the name of Shakespeare's wife as Hathaway, and Joseph Greene succeeded in tracing her to a family of that name dwelling in Shottery, one of the hamlets of Stratford. Her monument gives her first name as Anne, and her age as sixty-seven in 1623. She must, therefore, have been about eight years older than Shakespeare. Various small trains of evidence point to her identification with the daughter Agnes mentioned in the will of a Richard Hathaway of Shottery, who died in 1581, being then in possession of the farm-house now known as " Anne Hathaway's Cottage." Agnes was legally a distinct name from Anne, but there can be no doubt that ordinary custom treated them as identical. The principal record of the It is worth noting that Walter Roche, who in 1558 became fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, was master of the school in 1570-1572, so that its standard must have been good.





威廉·莎士比亚 人物简介

莎士比亚(W. William Shakespeare;1564~1616)英国文艺复兴时期伟大的剧作家、诗人,欧洲文艺复兴时期人文主义文学的集大成者。

中文名: 威廉·莎士比亚 逝世日W. William 1616年5月3日 外文名: 期: Shakespeare 职业: 剧作家,诗人,演员 国籍: 英国

英格兰沃里克郡斯特出生地: 代表作四大悲剧《哈姆雷特》《奥赛罗》《李拉福镇 品: 尔王》《麦克白》 出生日1564年4月23日 期:

William Shakespeare(1564-1616) is one of the most remarkable

playwrights and poets the world has ever known. With his 38 plays,154 sonnets and 2 long poems, he has established his giant position in world literature. He has also been given the highest praises by various scholars and critics the world over. In the past four hundred years or so, books and essays on Shakespeare and his works have kept coming out in large quantities.www.fz173.com_莎士比亚英文。

Shakekspeare went to London which afforded a wonderful enviroment for the development of drama. Shakespeare worked both as actor and playwright. He acted and wrote for the Lord Chamberlain's Men, which was later renamed the King's Men. Shakespeare established himself so well as a playwright that Robert Greene, one of the “University Wits”, resentfully declared him to be 'an upstart crow'.

From about 1591 to about 1611, Shakespeare was in the prime of his

dramatic career and his plays came out one after another. Shakespeare did not confine his genius merely to the theater. In 1593 and 1594, he published two narative poems, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece, both of whichwww.fz173.com_莎士比亚英文。

were dedicated to the Earl of Southampton. He also wrote sonnets, which were published in 1609. By 1597, Shakespeare was so prosperous that he bought the largest house in Stratford, known as New Place. About 1610 Shakespeare left London and retired to Stratford, though he continued to write for some time. He died on April 23,1616.

As the precise dates of many of Shakespeare's plays are still in doubt,

critics hold different views to the division of his dramatic career. But generally his dramatic career is divided into four periods.

The first period of shakespeare's dramatic career was one of apprenticeship. He wrote five history plays:Henry VI,Parts I,II,and III,Richard III, and Titus Andronicus; and four comedies: The Comedy of Errors, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew, and Love's Labour's Lost.

In the second period, Shakespeare's style and approach became highly individualized. By constructing a complex pattern between diferent characters and between appearance and reality, Shakespeare made subtle comments on a variety of human foibles. In this Period he wrote five histories:Richard II, King


John, Henry IV, Parts I and II, and Henry V, six comedies: A Midsummer

Night's Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merry Wives of Windsor; and Two tragedies:Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar.

Shakespeare's third period includes his greatest tragedies and his so-called dark comedies.The tragedies of this period are Hamlet,Othello,King


Lear,Macbeth,Antony and Cleopatra,Troilus and Cressida,and Coriolanus.The two comedies are All's Well That Ends Well and Measure for Measure.

The last period of shakespeare's work includes his principle romantic

tragicomedies:Pericles,Cymbeline,The Winter's Tale and The Tempest;and his two final plays:Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen.

Shakespeare's greatest tragedies are :Hamlet,Othello,King Lear,and

Macbeth.(This text is only used for non-commercial purpose.You have to have special permission to reprint this article,reproduction of material without witten permission is strictly prohibited.Contact me for permission to copy this

article.This article or section may be inaccurate ,hope more experts can make comments on it.

William Shakespeare was a writer of plays and poems. Some of his most

famous plays are Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet. He was born in 1564 in


At school he liked watching plays. He decided to be an actor when he finished school at the age of fourteen. He married in 1582 and had three


At the age of twenty-eight he moved to London and joined a theater

company. He became a successful actor and started writing plays. Queen

Elizabeth I(伊丽莎白) enjoyed Shakespeare's play.

In 1599 the company opened the Globe Theatre on the River Thames(泰晤士河) in London. You can go to the River Thames and Globe Theater in London today.

William Shakespeare died at the age of fifty-two. He was rich and

successful. You can still see his plays in English and many other languages.

He is one of the most famous writers in the world.


罗》(英:Othello)、《李尔王》(英:King Lear)、《麦克白》(英:Macbeth)。四大喜剧:《仲夏夜之梦》、《威尼斯商人》、《第十二夜》、《皆大欢喜》(《As you like it》)。历史剧:《亨利四世》、《亨利五世》、《理查二世》等。还写过154首十四行诗,二首长诗。本·琼生称他为“时代的灵魂”,马克思称他和古希腊的埃斯库罗斯为“人类最伟大的戏剧天才”。虽然莎士比亚只用英文写作,但他却是世界著名作家。他的大部分作品都已被译成多种文字,其剧作也在许多国家上演。1616年4月23日病逝。莎士比亚和意大利著名数学家、物理学家、天文学家和哲学家、近代实验科学的先躯者伽利略同一年出生。


To be or not to be.That is a question.


Better a witty fool than a foolish wit.-Shakespeare


A light heart lives long .


Do not , for one repulse , give up the purpose that you resolved to effect .


In delay there lies no plenty , Then come kiss me , sweet and twenty , Youth’s a stuff that will not endure .

迁延蹉跎,来日无多,二十丽姝,请来吻我,衰草枯杨,青春易过。 The time of life is short ; to spend that shortness basely, it would be too long .


Don’t gild the lily.


The empty vessels make the greatest sound .


The course of true love never did run smooth.


Love, and the same charcoal, burning, need to find ways to ask cooling. Allow an arbitrary, it is necessary to heart charred。 爱,和炭相同,烧起来,得想办法叫它冷却。让它任意着,那就要把一颗心烧焦。www.fz173.com_莎士比亚英文。

Laughter is the root of all evil.


Words can not express true love, loyalty behavior is the best explanation。


Love is a woman with the ears, and if the men will love, but love is to use your eyes。


I bogged down in a sea of blood back legs, unable to stop, go back, as far as like, people feel that there is no retreat. the future is a marshy area, people got in deeper and deeper。


There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so 世间本无善恶,端看个人想法

When the heart of honor get hurt of time, the comity is to cure its good medicine




1. Frailty, your name is woman!(仅剧情需要,不代表所有:脆弱啊,你的名字是女人!)

2. To be or not to be,that's a question。(生存还是毁灭,那是个值得思考的问题。)

3. 放弃时间的人,时间也会放弃他。

4. 成功的骗子,不必再以说谎为生,因为被骗的人已经成为他的拥护者,我再说什么也是枉然。

5. 人们可支配自己的命运,若我们受制于人,那错不在命运,而在我们自己。

6 美满的爱情,使斗士紧绷的心情松弛下来。

7 太完美的爱情,伤心又伤身,身为江湖儿女,没那个闲工夫。 8 嫉妒的手足是谎言!

9 上帝是公平的,掌握命运的人永远站在天平的两端,被命运掌握的人仅仅明白上帝赐给他命运!

10 一个骄傲的人,结果总是在骄傲里毁灭了自己。

11 爱是一种甜蜜的痛苦,真诚的爱情永不是一条平坦的道路的。 12 因为她生的美丽,所以被男人追求;因为她是女人,所以被男人俘获。

13 如果女性因为感情而嫉妒起来那是很可怕的。

14 不要只因一次挫败,就放弃你原来决心想达到的目的。

15 女人不具备笑傲情场的条件。

16 我承认天底下再没有比爱情的责罚更痛苦的,也没有比服侍它更快乐的事了。

17 新的火焰可以把旧的火焰扑灭,大的苦痛可以使小的苦痛减轻。 18 聪明人变成了痴愚,是一条最容易上钩的游鱼;因为他凭恃才高学广,看不见自己的狂妄。

19 愚人的蠢事算不得稀奇,聪明人的蠢事才叫人笑痛肚皮;因为他用全副的本领,证明他自己愚笨。

20 外观往往和事物的本身完全不符,世人都容易为表面的装饰所欺骗。

21 黑暗无论怎样悠长,白昼总会到来。

22 勤劳一天,可得一日安眠;勤奋一生,可永远长眠。

24 金子啊,,你是多么神奇。你可以使老的变成少的,丑的变成美的,黑的变成白的,错的变成对的„„

25 目眩时更要旋转,自己痛不欲生的悲伤,以别人的悲伤,就能够治愈!

26 爱情就像是生长在悬崖上的一朵花,想要摘就必需要有勇气。


Shakespeare's World

Most of Shakespeare's career unfolded during the monarchy of Elizabeth I, the Great Virgin Queen from whom the historical period of the Bard's life takes its name as the Elizabethan Age. Elizabeth came to the throne under turbulent circumstances in 1558 (before Shakespeare was born) and ruled until 1603. Under her reign, not only did England prosper as a rising commercial power at the expense of Catholic Spain, Shakespeare's homeland undertook an enormous expansion into the New World and laid the foundations of what would become the British Empire. This ascendance came in the wake of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the former regaining Greek and Roman classics and stimulating an outburst of creative endeavor throughout Europe, the latter transforming England into a Protestant/Anglican state, and generating continuing religious strife, especially during the civil wars of Elizabeth's Catholic sister, Queen Margaret or "Bloody Mary."

The Elizabethan Age, then, was an Age of Discovery, of the pursuit of scientific knowledge, and the exploration of human nature itself. The basic assumptions

underpinning feudalism/Scholasticism were openly challenged with the support of Elizabeth and, equally so, by her successor on the throne, James I. There was in all this an optimism about humanity and its future and an even greater optimism about the destiny of England in the world at large. Nevertheless, the Elizabethans also recognized that the course of history is problematic, that Fortune can undo even the greatest and most promising, as Shakespeare reveals in such plays as Antony &

Cleopatra. More specifically, Shakespeare and his audiences were keenly aware of the prior century's prolonged bloodshed during the War of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York. Many Elizabethans, particularly the prosperous, feared the prospect of civil insurrection and the destruction of the commonwealth, whether as a result of an uprising from below or of usurpation at the top. Thus, whether or not we consider Shakespeare to have been a political conservative, his histories, tragedies and even his romances and comedies are slanted toward the restoration or maintenance of civil harmony and the status quo of legitimate rule.




  ◆ I would like now to seriously indifferent room of wonderful。


  ◆ Love to talk about a bit of a surprise to people to learn the total patient injury。


  ◆ If you understand the value of love and love you have given me I have to wait for the future。


  ◆ No matter how long night, the arrival of daylight Association。


  ◆ Words can not express true love, loyalty behavior is the best explanation。


  ◆ Love is a woman with the ears, and if the men will love, but love is to use your eyes。


  ◆ There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so


  ◆ When the heart of honor gets hurt of time, the comity is to cure its good medicine


www.fz173.com_莎士比亚英文。   ◆ To be or not to be, that is a question.


  ◆ Better a witty fool than a foolish wit.


  ◆ A light heart lives long.


  ◆ Do not, for one repulse, give up the purpose that you resolved to effect.


  ◆ In delay there lies no plenty, and then come kiss me, sweet and twenty, Youth’s a stuff that will not endure.


  ◆ The time of life is short; to spend that shortness basely, it would be too long .


  ◆ Don’t gild the lily.


  ◆ The empty vessels make the greatest sound .



  英语手抄报资料一:一年四季 Four Seasons in A Year

  In China, there are four seasons in a year, spring, summer, autumn and winter. Summer is hot and winter is cold. Spring and autumn are comfortable. Spring lasts from March to May. Summers goes from June to August. From September to November is autumn. At last is winter, from December to February. Among the four seasons in a year, I like winter most.





  英语手抄报资料二:夏天 Summer

  Summer is the second season in the year. In the Northern Hemisphere, summer goes from June to August. Summer is the hottest season in the year. Sometimes, the temperature reaches 40°C. Many people can not stand such hot weather. So they always stay indoors. At night, people would go out for a walk. Swimming is the most popular sport in summer. It brings cool to people.



语法化 grammaticalization 指的是语法范畴和语法成分产生和形成的过程或现象,最典型的表现是语言中意义实在的词汇或结构式演变成无实在意义、仅表语法功能的语法成分,或者一个较虚的语法成分变成更虚的语法成分。在现代语言学中,研究这种语法化现象的理论通常被称为“语法化学说”或“语法化理论”。本版邀请我院语言所吴福祥介绍近年来国外语法化研究中的几个热点问题,同时也对国内近年来的语法化研究情况作一简介。


最近几年来,单向性(unidirectionality)无疑是语法化研究中争论最为热烈的一个问题。单向性是语法化理论中的一个最重要的假设,指的是语法化的演变是以“词汇成分>语法成分”或“较少语法化>较多语法化”这种方向进行的。语法化的单向性由Givon首先明确提出并作出解释,此后一直被认为是语法化的一个重要特征。单向性问题的争论始于20世纪90年代末期,这个争论在很大程度上是由Newmeyer引起并由 DavidLightfood以及RichardJanda和BrianJoseph等学者所推动。Newmeyer的《语法形式与语法功能》一书中专门有一章叫做“解构语法化”,列举了大量的所谓单向性反例,据此否认单向性的存在;不仅如此,Newmeyer甚至宣称“根本没有语法化这样的东西”。 DavidLightfood则指责单向性的研究本质上是19世纪历史比较语言学“反结构主义”(anti struc鄄turalist)的东山再起。此后,《语言科学》(LanguageSciences)专刊(2001,23.2 3,由LyleCampbell编辑,收有Campbell,Joseph,Newmeyer,Norde,Janda等五人的文章)整个一期几乎无例外地致力于否定单向性的理论价值,并提出反对单向性的各种理论和经验上的证据。此外,支持或同情上述观点的文章在最近三四年也相继发表,例如Beths、 LassFitzmaurice、Geurts、Kim以及VanderAuwera等。


单向性问题的争论仍未结束,2002年4月阿姆斯特丹大学举行的第二届“语法化的新思考”国际学术讨论会上,与会代表所提交的70余篇论文中有 3/2的文章涉及单向性问题的讨论,以致会议的召集人阿姆斯特丹大学OlgaFischer教授决定将语法化的单向性原则作为该会议论文集的一个重要主题。



语言项频率的高低是由重复的频度造成的。为什么重复会导致一个语言项发生语法化呢?Haiman从心理学和生态学的角度对此做了系统而深入的解释。Haiman认为,像人类所有的建制(institutions)一样,人类语言也在使用中发生变化,特别是语言和语法由于话语在时间中不断重复而发生变化。Haiman用“仪式化”(ritualization)来概括由重复导致的三个相关的演变过程:(1)“适应”(habituation);(2)“解放”(emancipation);(3)“自动化”(automatization)。“适应”、“自动化 ”和“解放”分别是心理学和生态学的重要机制。在“适应”的过程中,刺激的高频重复使得反应者对刺激物的反应持续减弱,最终导致刺激物的形式和意义被磨蚀。在人类语言中“适应”不仅体现在问候语和陈词滥调(cliches)的形成上,通常也表现在语法化过程中:重复可以导致形式的弱化,也可以独立地使意义变得虚化。重复的另一个后果是“自动化”。JohnHaiman认为,自动化可能是双层组构(doublearticulation)的一个重要来源,在双层组构中一个最小的意义单位(词或语素)是由若干更小的无意义单位组成。因为无意义的单位是原来有意义的单位经过“语素>词缀>音位”这种连续演变之后留下的残迹,所以重复不仅体现在语法化早期阶段和最后阶段,同时也表现在双重组构本身的来源上。“解放”指的是这样的一种现象:一个工具性行为变得跟它原来的主要动机相分离,从而自由地表达信递功能,并进一步获得意义,变成一个符号。Haiman指出,不仅其他物种的很多信递行为来源于原本非信递行为的“仪式化”,人类语言的各种现象也是在“解放”过程中获得其来源的。比如音位化、重音和语调的仪式化以及固定语调模式的产生等。不仅如此,Haiman进一步认为,语言本身也可以被看作一种从工具功能中解放出来的行为。


Boyland指出,语法化过程中所发生的形式上的演变跟非语言的技能通过反复练习而变得自动化的演变极为相似。由于重复,若干原本独立的单位所构成的序列逐渐被处理为一个单一的单位或者组块(chunk)。这种重新包装(repackaging)有两个后果:组成单位的个体身份逐渐消失以及整个组块在形式上开始缩减。这种基本的自动化原则可以应用于各种运动神经活动(motoractivities),譬如演奏乐器、从事体育活动、拌和煎饼的糊状物等,也可以应用于语法化。像几个世纪以上频繁使用的短语(I m)goingto Verb ,已经被重新包装为一个单一的处理单位,组成部分的个体身份消失了(孩子常常惊讶地发现gonna实际上拼写的是goingto),该短语因而在形式上相当大地缩减了。

Bybee认为,语法化过程中从词汇功能到语法功能的演变,其实是一个“解放”的过程。在莎士比亚的英语中 begoingto具有“空间上朝一个目标位移”的字面意义。不过,假定人们对位移目的有明显的兴趣时,甚至在莎士比亚的英语里,begoingto的信息值也是较多的跟目的相关而较少跟空间位移相关。因为Begoingto频繁地与主体意图也被显示的这种语境相联系,所以导致了它逐渐从原来空间位移的意义中解放出来,表达目标或意图的新功能也逐渐成为这个结构式的主要功能。语法化过程中的语义泛化和虚化则高度平行于“适应”过程,就像刺激的高频重复会使得反应者对刺激物的反应持续减弱,最终导致刺激物的形式和意义被磨蚀一样。一个词、词组或结构式的高频重复也能减少其语义力量和信息值。

Bybee对仪式化的各种特征在语法化过程中的对应表现,以及重复在语法化所涉及的语音音系、形态 句法和语义语用等演变中的基本作用做了更为具体的考察。Bybee赞同Haiman将语法化过程看作仪式化这个意见。因为仪式化(适应、自动化和解放)的发生导源于重复,所以Bybee强调语法化的最基本机制是重复。有鉴如此,Bybee从突显重复在语法化过程中的决定性作用的角度将语法化重新定义为:一个频繁使用的词汇序列或语素序列自动化为一个单一的加工单位。


另一方面,重复不仅是语法化及其他语言演变现象的重要机制,也是大量的文化和生态现象发生仪式化的根本动因。这就引发了一个问题:语法化现象是否具有一个独立的机制?Haiman、Dahl、Bybee以及Haspelmath等学者都认为,语法化最基本的机制既非特域的(domain specific),也非特种的(species specific)。因此,高度抽象、至今仍很神秘的语法性质有望用更为普遍的术语来加以解释。

3 形式学派的语法化研究

近年来,语法化研究已逐渐被生成语法学家纳入形式学派的历史句法研究之中。20世纪90年代以来,形式学派阵营里的学者开始尝试运用生成语法理论和研究模式来研究功能范畴的语法化,以求“对语法化现象作出真正的解释”。1997年8月在德国的杜塞尔多夫大学召开的第13届国际历史语言学大会期间还专门举行了一次“语法化的形式主义研究(FormalapproachestoGrammaticalization)”学术讨论会。生成学派之所以会涉足语法化研究,可能跟生成语法理论近些年来的发展有关。自乔姆斯基发表《语障》以后,功能范畴被逐渐引入生成语法框架,在最近的10余年来逐渐完善的短语结构理论和X 标杠等理论框架里,像限定词(deter鄄miner)、标补词(complementizer)或一致关系标记(A鄄GR)这类功能范畴成分被普遍看作是短语结构中心语。而历时地看,这些功能中心语都来源于词汇成分或词汇中心语。正因为如此,历时生成语法研究开始注意语法化现象。



4 语法化与语言接触


其一是探讨特定的标准语言由语言接触等外部因素导致的语法化过程。任何一种语言在其演变发展过程中都会在不同程度上跟其他语言发生接触关系。语言接触常常会导致形态句法的借用和影响,Weinreich、 Thomason、Kaufman、Stein、Gerritsen、Stein、Harris、Campbell、Campbell以及 Thomason等学者的论著均描述了大量的句法借用和句法影响的语言事实。Harris&Campbell和Campbell甚至将句法借用视为句法演变的三个机制之一,Gerrit鄄sen&Stein则将语言接触及由此导致的句法借用和句法影响看作句法演变的一个重要外因。对句法演变的外部机制和动因的关注使人们发现以往被认为是一个语言内部的语法化现象其实是由语言接触导致或诱发的,比如Millar证明,语言接触在英语定冠词的语法化过程中起到了重要作用,Harris&Campbell则列举大量的事实证明句法借用常常和重新分析、扩展等机制一起造成大量形态句法现象的产生和演变。语言接触不仅会通过句法借用和影响促成具体的语法化过程的发生,而且还可以导致语法化机制的跨语言扩散,Bisng认为,语言联盟的出现很可能是由语法化机制跨语言的扩散造成的,特别是在语言接触情形中,说话者/听话者可以将其母语中业已存在的重新分析的机制转移到另外的语言中去。

其二是研究皮钦语和克利奥尔语中的语法化现象。皮钦语和克利奥尔语是由语言接触导致的两种接触语言(contactlanguages)。一般认为,皮钦语产生初期缺乏语法范畴和语法形式,当皮钦语固定化以后语法范畴和语法形式会逐渐增加,而当皮钦语被克利奥尔化(变成克利奥尔语)后语法形式则更加丰富。因此探讨皮钦语和克利奥尔语的语法化过程和机制无疑有助于语法化理论研究,正是在这个意义上皮钦语和克利奥尔语被认为是语法化研究的金矿。这方面研究的代表性成果是Bruyn的《克利奥尔语的语法化》和 Baker&syea的《改变意义,改变功能:接触语言语法化论文集》。前者是一部研究苏里南克里奥尔语语法化的专著,讨论了包括 gi‘give’用作受惠格标记在内的大量的语法演变的实例,Bruyn的研究表明,当皮钦语克里奥尔化时所发生的语法化过程(比如一个独立的词汇项变成形态的部分)常常并不是克里奥尔语内部发展的结果,新的形态标记其实是从低层语直接移入的。这个结论也许能有效地解释为什么克里奥尔语常常在很短的时间内产生新的语法形式。后者代表了克里奥尔语语法化研究的最新成果。在这个论文集里,Bruyn基于对苏里南克利奥尔语中若干语法结构式的观察,区别了克利奥尔语语法化的三种类型。第一种类型是“常规语法化(ordinarygrammaticaliza鄄tion)”,即语言内部的语法标记和结构的渐变;第二种类型叫做“瞬间语法化(instantaneousgrammatical鄄ization)”,其区别于常规语法化之处是“通常逐渐进行的演变在克利奥尔语化过程中可以在很短的时间跨度中发生”;第三种语法化类型是“外表语法化(apparentgrammaticaliza鄄tion)”。 Bruyn认为,这种语法化其实是低层语语法成分移入的结果。




语言不仅能表达主观性,而且还常常表达交互主观性(intersubjectivi鄄ty)。交互主观性指的是说话人/作者用明确的语言形式表达对听话人/读者“自我”的关注,这种关注可以体现在认识意义上,即关注听话人/读者对命题内容的态度;但更多的是体现在社会意义上,即关注听话人/读者的“面子”或“形象需要”。交互主观性派生于主观性并以后者为蕴涵,换言之,一个语言形式如果具有交互主观性那么同时一定呈现主观性。从历时角度看,语言形式的交互主观性是通过交互主观化过程而产生的,所谓交互主观化(intersubjectification)指的是这样的一个符号学过程:意义经由时间变成对“说话人/作者在认识意义和社会意义上对听话人/读者‘自我’的关注”这样的隐涵义加以编码或使之外在化。交互主观化与主观化这两种机制的区别是,主观化是意义变得更强烈地聚焦于说话者,而交互主观化是意义变得更强烈地聚焦于受话人。但交互主观化总是蕴涵着主观化,不可能存在没有某种主观化程度的交互主观化(一个形式若没有某种程度的主观化就不可能有交互主观化现象)。历时地看,交互主观化通常比主观化出现得晚并来源于主观化。一个典型的例子是英语let s的意义演变:

a Letusgo,willyou?> b Let sgo,shallwe?> c Let stakeourpillsnow,Johnny.

上面的例子中,由 a 到 b 是主观化,由 b 到 c 是则是交互主观化。

语法化中的(交互)主观化研究也体现在话语语用标记的语法化研究之中,因为话语语用标记是语言表达主观性和交互主观性的的主要形式。这方面的成果主要有Hason、Powell、Brinton、 Onodera、Jucker以及Traugott等学者的论著。Traugot的论著详细考察了大量英语副词的语法化过程,揭示出“小句内副词> 句子副词>话语标记”这样的语法化链。





莎士比亚英文简介 莎士比亚英文ppt


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